Bologa is a village in the Cluj
county, Transsylvania, Romania.
N, 22.87970 E (position of the Medieval fortress)
At the confluence
of the Crişul Repede and Hent (Sebes) rivers (the confluence is known
as "gura apelor"="the mouth of rivers" in the local
Transportation links: on the European route E60.
Small railway stop ("halta" for "Personal"=slow trains) on the
Oradea-Cluj-Napoca main Romanian railroad. On the national road 128
which heads South towards Sacuieu.
Roman castrum called Resculum is the oldest documented settlement in
the area. It was built around 106 AD, as a garrison for the “II
Cohortis Hispanorum” (see Dux), whose mission was probably to
defend the Roman empire border, which passed through the area. As the
Romans tried to tighten their hold on the region during the 2nd
century A.D., they brought in colons to the village from Greece,
possibly from Patras.
Middle Ages. The fortress
the opposite bank of the Hent (Sebes) river, on top of a steep hill
lies one of the first Hungarian fortresses in Transsylvania, which was
mentioned for five centuries as Sebesvar (also spelt Sebesuar,
Sebeswar), featuring on most Middle-Age maps of the region. Probably
due to the fortress, the place was also known as Varallya ("under the
fortress") or Sebesvaralja. The fortress was first attested in
The Hungarian king, Sigismund of Luxembourg after signing the
alliance treaty against the Turks in 1399 gave the fortresses of Bran
and Bologa to Wallachia's prince Mircea cel Bătrân.
In the mid
20th century the tower of the fortress lost its roof, probably the
last wooden element of the ruins. All that remains is stone.
Modern times Probably
it was after the Romanian
unification (1918) that the current name (Bologa) was assigned. The
etymology is not clear (please improve
A stone quary was
opened in 1930 providing granit for the Budapest-Bucharest road. The
quary was later on taken over by the Romanian railways, most of whose
terassaments are made of stone from the area. After 1989 the quary was
privatised and did not do very well comparing to neighbouring quaries,
but the upcoming highway projects in Romania are expected to change
Timber industry is also active in the
Agriculture is widely practiced but the area only allows
for the individual needs of the land owners.
Most of today's village (around 700) inhabitants
are ethnic Romanians, probably descendents of the original Roman
population and its indigenous Dacian component. The majority of
inhabitants have the surname Potra, which according to accounts is a
link to the colons from Patras (the Potras/Patras variation exists in
other Greek-related names too).